Sprinkler fire fighting system is an active fire protection method. The system is made up of a water source
that provides sufficient flow and flow rates for a plurality of water distribution tubes and several sprinklers
attached to it. Although the system used in the past only in large factories and large commercial buildings, today,
such systems are available for use in small houses and at affordable prices.
Sprinkler firefighting systems are widely used throughout the world and each year more than 40 million sprinklers
are installed. More than 96% of the fires in buildings completely protected by Sprinkler fire fighting systems have
been controlled solely by fire sprinklers.
History of Sprinklers Fire Extinguishing systems
Leonardo da Vinci designed a Sprinkler system in the fifteenth century. He used a large stove and a bundle of
conveyors to automate his master's kitchen. Once during a gala, a series of errors broke out and a fire broke out.
"The Sprinkler system worked too well and took all the food and healthy parts of the kitchen with water."
In 1723, Ambrose Godfrey created the first successful automatic sprinkler system. He used gunpowder to release the
But the world's first modern Sprinkler fire extinguishing system was installed in 1812 by William Congreve, architect
of the Royal Drama Theater in England, and was certified in the 3606 patent on the same date It was registered.
The system consisted of a sealed cylinder reservoir with a volume of approximately 95,000 liters fed by a 10-inch
(250 mm)water pipe and split into all sections of the hall.
In the event of fire,a series of smaller tubes fed by the above branches were thrown into the fire by a half inch
(13 mm) hole mounted on them.
From 1852 to 1885, plug-and-pipe systems were used as a means of fire protection in the UK textile factories.
But these systems were not automated; they had to be done by one person. The inventors first started around the 1860s,
following experiments on automatic sprinklers.The first Sprinkler system was patented in 1872 by Philip W. Pratt of Abington,
Mass., In Philadelphia, United States.
Henry S. Parmalee of New Haven, Connecticut, is the inventor of the first automatic Sprinkler series.
Parmali has succeeded in improving the invention of the prat and creating a better Sprinkler system. In 1874, he installed
his Sprinkler system at his piano factory.
Frederick Greenel optimized the Parmalia scheme, and in 1881 he introduced the Sprinkler system to his name.
He further improved his innovative system, and in 1890 he invented the Sprinkler Glass Disk, which is essentially
the Sprinkler system used today.
Until the 1940s Sprinkler's were almost exclusively built for the protection of commercial buildings,
whose owners could save the cost of these systems by saving on insurance costs. But over the years, nowadays,
according to local construction standards, fire sprinklers in parts of North America and specific uses, including
but not limited to hospitals, schools, hotels and other public buildings,are mandatory safety equipment.
But across the United States and Canada, it's rarely seen that Sprinkler systems are compulsory on the basis
of building standards for normal use,with no large number of people (such as factories, process lines, retailers, petrol stations, etc.).
Sprinklers today are installed in most other buildings, such as schools and residential complexes.
This is largely due to lobbying by the National Fire Retardant Sprinkler Network, the European Fire Brigade Network and
the British Auto-Fire Sprinkler Association.
In most cases, building regulations in Scotland and the United Kingdom are essential for the installation of Sprinkler
firefighting systems in order to keep people in certain types of properties safe.
In Scotland, all newly created schools, new clinics, gardens and high-rise apartments are protected by Sprinkler.
In England, all buildings over 30 meters in height should be equipped with Sprinkler. In 2011, Wales became the first country in the world
to declare the installation of fire extinguishers in new homes as mandatory. This law will include newly renovated homes and apartments, as well as
clinics and student dormitories,and will begin in September 2013.
Use Sprinkler fire extinguishing system
Spinclers have been used in the United States since 1874 and are often installed in factories that have seen catastrophic fires in the last century,
both financially and financially. Currently, in the United States, all high-rise buildings and underground buildings which are generally 75 feet
(23 meters) above or below the limit of firefighters' access and firefighters are limited to drainage sufficient water for possible fire-fighting,
is required to equip Getting to Sprinkler.
Sometimes Sprinkler installation is considered mandatory by statutory regulations, and is sometimes recommended by insurance companies
to reduce the financial losses or commercial interruptions caused by fire. In the United States, building regulations for more than
100 community seats and places providing day care services, such as hotels, nursing homes, dormitories and hospitals,
are usually either statutory or as a precondition for state funding. And federal or as one of the licensing requirements
(which are required for institutions seeking medical personnel training), have required Sprinkler's installation.
In Norway, since July 2010, all new homes with more than two floors, as well as all hotels, sanatoria and new hospitals,
have been required to have Sprinkler.In other Scandinavian countries, the obligation to install Sprinkler in new sanatories
is either set or will be set in place,and in Finland by 2010, one-third of sanatoria were refurbished and equipped with Sprinkler.
The incident of fire at the illegal immigration detention center at Schiffel Airport in the Netherlands on October 27, 2005,
which resulted in the deaths of 11 detainees,resulted in the development and deployment of Sprinkler in all
of these prisons in the Netherlands.
تعداد بازدید: 671