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Automatic fire extinguishing systems
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16 مهر 1401
  • Types of automatic fire extinguishing systems

    There are different types of automatic fire extinguishing systems that can be used according to the type of possible fire and the intended location.

    • Water
    • the floor
    • dry powder
    • more powder
    • CO2 gas
    • Non-destructive ozone layer gas
    • mist sprayer

    Automatic fire extinguishing systems

    Calculations related to the design of automatic systems based on LOW EXPANSION floors

    1. Determining the specifications and location of the fuel tank.
    2. Classification of fire risk according to the flammable substance inside the tank.
    3. Location of the tank.
    4. Determining the area of the combustible area (surface of the tank opening).
    5. Determination of physical and chemical characteristics of combustible material.
    6. Determining how to spray the floor and determining the type of foam maker with flow rate and discharge pressure.
    7. Determining other system components and their location.
    8. Choosing the floor material according to the characteristics of the combustible material.
    9. Calculation of the flow rate of the required floor solution, which must be divided between the floor builders.
    10. Calculation of the flow rate of the foam made by the foam maker, considering the concentration of 3% or 6%
    11. Calculation of the required water flow rate (subtracting the foam liquid flow rate from the total foam solution flow rate).
    12. Determining the floor drain time – according to NFPA 11, the drain time for gasoline is 55 minutes.
    13. Calculate the total volume of floor liquid in gallons.
    14. Calculation of the total volume of water required for extinguishing.
    15. Design considerations (pipe diameter, valves, pump specifications with corresponding hydraulic calculations).

    Automatic fire extinguishing network based on CO2 gas

    CO2 is a colorless, odorless and electrically insulating gas that is lighter than air.

    Automatic fire extinguishing systems

    Everything you need to know about co2 capsules

    Fire comes in all shapes and sizes. Although it seems amazing and interesting to have a fire extinguisher to put out all kinds of fires, but for better efficiency and performance, we should have the appropriate extinguisher for different fires. The topic of examining different types of extinguishers is a broad topic. For this reason, in this blog we are talking about a special type of important fire extinguishers called carbon dioxide.

    In this article, we provide complete information about various things, including its uses, how to use a fire extinguisher, and also mention the places where you can get a fire extinguisher.

    What is a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher?

    As its name suggests, a CO2 fire extinguisher contains carbon dioxide, which is used to extinguish fires in electrical equipment as well as Class B fires such as flammable liquids.

    One of the main advantages of CO2 fire extinguishers is that they do not leave any residue or dirt when emptying and after use. This is very necessary in extinguishing the fire caused by the fire of electrical equipment.

    What color is CO2 fire extinguisher?

    CO2 fire extinguishers can be recognized by the red body and the black and white label on the front of the container. They are also produced in 2 different sizes of 2 and 5 kg.

    Automatic fire extinguishing systems

    What are the uses of CO2 fire extinguishers?

    CO2 fire extinguishers are the only recommended extinguishers for computer fires and other electrical fires.

    A great feature about CO2 extinguishers is the non-conductivity of the gas released by them. This important feature can be very useful when dealing with any fire caused by electrical equipment.

    Also, these capsules are among the most popular fire extinguishers for offices and retail/convenience stores due to their high efficiency.

    If you work in a large office building, you will likely find a CO2 fire extinguisher in the server room or other areas of the building.

    CO2 extinguishers are ideal for places with a lot of electrical equipment, such as offices or server rooms, as they are safe to use on electrical device fires.

    The non-conductivity of the gas means that CO2 fire extinguishers are suitable for any office with electrical equipment.

    How does a CO2 fire extinguisher work?

    If you encounter a fire and need to use a CO2 fire extinguisher, it is better to have complete information about how to use it.

    A CO2 fire extinguisher contains liquid carbon dioxide. When you spray an extinguisher on a fire, its liquid carbon dioxide is released and neutralizes the oxygen in the fire.

    When liquid carbon dioxide comes into contact with oxygen, it destroys the fire’s ability to burn or spread further.

    The carbon dioxide in the extinguisher has a very low and cold temperature, which means that it not only extinguishes the fire, but also prevents it from starting again.

    How to use CO2 fire extinguisher safely?

    One of the most important things to consider when working with fire extinguishers is safety. As mentioned above, CO2 fire extinguishers are only suitable for electrical fires and Class B fires. But before using the CO2 fire extinguisher, you should make sure that it is safe enough to use.

    Here are some things to consider when using:

    • Make sure the safety catch is not bent.
    • To avoid frostbite, do not hold the discharge nozzle or obtain an extinguisher with a non-freezing discharge nozzle.
    • Keep enough distance from the fire when releasing the safety pin.
    • In flammable liquids, place the discharge hose on the fire and move it gradually.
    • If it is safe to do so, be sure to turn off the electrical equipment and then point the extinguisher at the fire. Then slowly push the lever to release the extinguisher.

    Where can I buy CO2 fire extinguishers?

    Now, considering that you have obtained the necessary information about CO2 fire extinguishers, it is your turn to get one quickly if you do not have a fire extinguisher in your building.

    Most businesses require a different fire extinguisher to suit their work environment. For example, a kitchen may require a wet chemical extinguisher to deal with a high temperature fire. While in a server room, we may need a CO2 extinguisher for electrical fires.

    Carbon dioxide gas or CO2

    Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound formed by the covalent bond of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms, and is found in gaseous form at room temperature. This gas is 53% denser than dry air, but it has a long life and mixes completely in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide gas is considered a versatile industrial material. For example, as an inert gas in welding and fire extinguishers, as a pressurized gas in air guns and oil recovery, and as a supercritical fluid solvent in coffee decaffeination and supercritical drying. is used It is also used as a raw material for the synthesis of fuels and chemicals, and is an unwanted by-product in many large-scale oxidation processes, for example, it is used in the production of acrylic acid (more than 5 million tons per year). The frozen form of CO2 is known as dry ice.

    Classification of gas fire extinguishing systems based on pressure

    1. Low pressure system: In this system, gas tanks at a low temperature of about 18C o- and a low pressure of 300 PSI
    2. High pressure system: In this system, CO2 tanks are located at a temperature of 21 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 850 PSI.

    Automatic fire extinguishing systems

    Classification of carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems in terms of performance

    1. Total Flooding System: In this system, fixed gas tanks are sprayed into a completely closed space through a piping network and special nozzles.
    2. Local application system: In this system, fixed gas tanks are sprayed into a piping network and special nozzles inside a completely closed space.
    3. Hose system (Hand Hose Lin): In this system, CO2 gas is used through a series of hoses and these hoses are used manually to extinguish the fire.
    4. Mobile system (Stand pipe Supply & Mobile Supply): It includes a series of CO2 cylinders that are moved on a mobile trailer, which can be connected to the piping network or a series of hoses. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are one of the most common types of gas fire extinguishers. And they are designed to contain fires caused by burning organic materials such as paper and wood. CO2 can be used in dry and wet powder form, but it is more effective when used in liquid form.

    CO2 fire extinguishing systems are used for which class of fire?

    Carbon dioxide gas extinguishers are used in Class E fires, i.e. electronic equipment, because CO2 gas is non-conductive and non-corrosive. Also, due to the ineffectiveness of this gas, it can be used in class B fires.

    The important thing about this type of extinguisher is that it should not be used outdoors. Because it spreads quickly in the air and will not have enough concentration to turn it off.

    Application of CO2 in fire extinguishing operations:

    • Fires caused by electrical equipment.
    • Flammable liquids.
    • Automatically in transformer systems, oil switches, circuit breakers, electric motors, electronic equipment and instruments, generators, diesel skids and liquid fuel engines.

    CO2 is not used in the following cases:

    1. Combustion of SO2 gas
    2. Oxygen producing materials such as cellulose nitrate.
    3. Combustion of flammable metals such as potassium, titanium, zirconium, magnesium.
    4. Combustion of metal hydrides.

    Automatic fire extinguishing systems

    Automatic or automatic fire extinguishing systems are very efficient, because they are activated in the first moments of fire and prevent irreparable financial and life losses.

    This type of fire extinguishing system has different types according to the location and possible fires in that location, each of which has a different application. Types of automatic fire extinguishing systems can be divided into 6 categories based on the nature of their extinguishers:

    1. Water-based: suitable for fire classes A, B, C.
    2. Floor: It is suitable for possible fire of classes A, B, C.
    3. Dry powder: effective for fire classes A, B, C, D, E.
    4. More powder: fire class F or the fires resulting from edible oils are suitable.
    5. CO2 gas: used in fires of electronic equipment (E) and flammable liquids.
    6. Fog sprinkler: This type of system is used for classes A, B, C, D, E.

    Automatic fire extinguishing systems based on CO2 gas is one of the most practical automatic fire extinguishing systems because this type of gas does not have waste and does not harm server rooms due to its non-conductive and non-corrosive properties. Of course, the very important point is that carbon dioxide gas is very dangerous for humans because it causes suffocation and this type of automatic fire extinguishing system should be used when you are sure that you can leave the place in a short time.

    Determining the amount of CO2 gas for automatic fire extinguishing systems (Total Flooding System)

    Minimum weight of CO2 required Volumetric multiplication of CO2 weight for kg/m2 volume unit Space volume/m2
    ___ 15/1 Up to 4 cubic meters
    78/4 kg 07/1 From 4-14
    5/1 kg 1 From 15-45
    4/41 kg 9/0 From 46-128
    5/102kg 8/0 From 129-1420
    994 kg 7/0 From 1420 onwards

    If you want to get more information about the types of fire extinguishers, refer to the article entitled “Types of fire extinguishers”.

    Also, if you intend to buy a fire extinguisher, you will be able to refer to the “Fire extinguisher purchase” section in the Hyperfire online store.

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