Using the hydraulic calculation method to determine the diameter of sprinkler network pipes
In this method, according to the relationships and formulas of fluid mechanics, the diameter of the pipe is determined based on the supply of pressure and flow rates. If computer software is used, hydraulic calculations are performed with high speed and accuracy.
Hydraulics is a science that examines the principles and rules related to fluids in states of rest and motion. The word hydrostatic deals with the investigation of the fluid at rest. The word hydrokinetic deals with fluid in motion. Since water is the extinguishing agent in sprinkler systems, the sprinkler system designer must be fully familiar with the nature of water and how it moves in the pipes of the sprinkler system network.
The energy and potential stored in stationary and motionless water particles is called static pressure.
Note: The higher the height of the water from the reference point, the higher the pressure produced, and the following equation is used to calculate the pressure in proportion to the height:
P = 0.433 H in the English system.
P = 0.098 H in the metric system
It is another word used to express pressure. For example, Head = 150 feet produces a pressure of 65 PSI, or a pressure of 65 psi is equivalent to a head of 150 feet.
The pressure caused by the weight of the earth’s atmosphere on objects is called (atmospheric pressure) or (air pressure). Air pressure at sea level is 14.7 PSI
The pressure indicated by the gauges installed on the system is called gauge pressure. If the degree connected to the pipe or tank under pressure shows a number, that number represents the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the pipe or tank. If the pressure rating is 20 PSI greater than atmospheric pressure.
Absolute pressure means the sum of atmospheric pressure and degree pressure.
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