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The first fire department in Iran

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The first fire department in Iran
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16 مهر 1401
محمدی
  • History of fire department

    The first fire organization, since one of the main and most important goals of the managers and officials of the fire organization and safety services of Tehran municipality is to spread the safety culture and increase the level of awareness and improve the level of specialized knowledge of the audience in the field of safety, all efforts are made for this basis. Presenting a documented history of how the first fire department in Iran and its evolution and progress is one of these efforts.

     

    The first fire department in Iran

    prologue:

    Amir Kabir had just arrived at his workplace and was about to start his daily work when one of the secret writers entered and brought a report to him:
    “Haji Mirza Ahmad Nam rented the covered coffee house of Maleki Siraj al-Mulk, which is located near the Karaval house of the old gate of Shemiran, and filled the upstairs and the coffee house itself with oil barrels. This warehouse is very dangerous. If God forbid a fire occurs there, it cannot be treated, therefore, the minister was informed several times.
    Amir looked at the report, furrowed his eyebrows, spent a few minutes thinking and then whispered:
    – Safe from ignorance! Safe from greed! These people don’t even think about themselves and they don’t think about how dangerous it is to store oil near the fire of the stove and where dozens of people visit it every day and smoke hookah and a spark. How can it turn all their lives into ashes?
    Amir Kabir, who had just taken over the country’s affairs for a few months and had great interest and enthusiasm to start his desired changes in the country’s political and social system, and in addition, he had received such reports in the previous days, he thought to himself:
    “The evidence shows that Mirza Ahmed’s coffee house is not the only place that has such a situation, and certainly many others may have made his mistake.”
    Before the chancellery of Amir Kabir, the oil needed by the people for fuel and lighting was imported in 110 kg barrels by camels from Badkobe, Russia, and people used to buy oil from containers with a capacity of two and a half (187.5 grams), five (5) 375 grams) and quarter (750 grams) or larger. But at that time, some businessmen, in order to be able to distribute oil more easily in all regions of the country, imported oil in the form of 20 kg barrels. However, due to the fact that oil was imported and because it was sometimes distributed irregularly or not distributed at all in some areas, a group of people did not have permanent access to oil, and in order not to be in trouble in terms of getting it, whenever they got oil, they would get They used to buy a lot of it; Especially since the importation of barrel oil became common, due to the fact that it was easier to maintain, the accumulation of oil by families and especially those who needed more oil in terms of their jobs intensified.
    Amir Kabir found the topic of the report interesting, especially because it had many similarities. He read the report once again, which was written in a concise and useful manner, and he was puzzled as to what to do, and when nothing came to his mind, he got up and started walking around the room. And he thought and when he didn’t get any results, he tried to do the rest of his daily work. But he could not get out of the thought of the report he had read.
    Amir Kabir had good information in various fields and he knew very well that the history of the first fire that was lit by man exceeds four thousand years and he also knew that fire is one of the most important human discoveries and although it is a very important factor for the well-being and comfort of man and his salvation from Darkness, cold, is the helper of humans in cooking food and the growth factor of many primary industries; By using it, mankind has been able to achieve considerable progress in the field of tool making, pottery making, glass making, metal melting, etc. But if it gets out of control, it can lead to irreparable risks.
    He, who had read the history well and knew very well that in the history of our country, many cities have been burned by fire and even thrown into the abyss of destruction. He remembered the burnt city 67 kilometers south of Zabul in Sistan and Baluchistan, which had a special growth and prosperity in the years 3200 to 2100 BC and was burned several times and rebuilt again. A city which, at least in our times, has been proven by archaeological excavations to have seen at least four distinct periods of prosperity and apparently was completely destroyed and destroyed by fire in the fourth period of its life.
    Amir Kabir also knew that in the last years of the Achaemenid reign, a fire in the throne of Jamshid caused the loss of a huge part of the national wealth, and in 325 AH, Baghdad, which was considered part of the Iranian territory at that time, was engulfed in a fire that lasted for two days and nights. He completely destroyed the city. The Mongols also set fire to large parts of Iran, and on the night of Tuesday, the 12th of Shawwal 1098 AH, a fire that was lit in one of the houses in Sari led to a huge fire that after an hour, its scope covered the whole city and.. .
    Amir’s back trembled when he remembered the fires that had happened in Iran, and it seemed to him that regardless of the fires that were intentional, the occurrence of a fire is an incident that could happen at any time and in any other place in the country, and this, while nowhere The country does not have the facilities to fight accidental fires and fires caused by people’s carelessness.
    That day, Amir Kabir’s mind was conflicted with the subject of the report he had read for a long time, and he tried every way to solve the problem, he reached a dead end and every time he said to himself:
    – Nothing can be done. There are no laws or rules that can prosecute or prohibit the offending coffee maker from doing this dangerous work. Also, if there was a law, it wouldn’t be spring with a single flower. On the assumption that Mirza Ahmad is dealt with, he is not the only person who has committed a crime, and it is not possible to place a watchman over the head of each person so that they do not commit such a crime.
    But suddenly, a spark lit up his mind:
    – One thing can be done, which the ancients neglected and never did. We must understand the people who command because of ignorance or intentThe narrators have always been kept in the dark, so that they can distinguish the benefits and harms and refrain from doing things that are not in their best interest, and such a thing is only possible in two ways: First, building schools all over the country. And then publishing a newspaper through which people can be informed and informed about various issues.
    Exactly from that day, Amir Kabir thought of implementing the ideas that he had long ago and with his efforts in 1230 AD, a paper factory was first established in the northeast of Tehran and high-quality writing paper came out of it, which became known as Amiri paper. When he was satisfied with the supply of paper, he ordered the publication of the newspaper “Vaqe’i Tahsehiyeh” in parallel with the paper mill’s activities, and appointed “Mirza Jabar Tadzire Chi” as the editor of the newspaper from among the qualified people he knew, and he was in charge of the translation. He gave the newspaper to “Barjis Sahib” and then on the fifth day of Rabi al-Awwal 1268 (December 1231) in the northern part of the royal citadel and in a place that used to be a barracks, he opened the Dar al-Funun school under the management of “Mohammed Ali Khan Shirazi” (Foreign Minister) and decided to use the graduates of that school to provide teachers for other schools in the country.

    History of fire fighting
    The history of fire in the world is nothing less than the history of the discovery of fire by humans, and without the need to provide historical documents, it is possible to guess and believe that since the time humans discovered fire, they were constantly exposed to the dangers caused by it, and of course , there are many documents and documents available and it confirms that in addition to the terrible fires that happened in Iran and some of them were mentioned, the people of other countries have also experienced heavy injuries caused by intentional or accidental fires and for this reason, since a long time ago Finding ways to deal with fires has attracted the attention of people from many parts of the world, and the available evidence indicates that the ancient Romans used special equipment to protect people’s lives and property, protect forests and pastures, as well as preserve public buildings that were considered national capitals. provided and considered people to deal with possible fires, in Egypt from the 2nd century onwards, this matter was taken more seriously and even a person named “Heron” from the people of Iskandran, built a special device to put out the fire, which for some time relatively Long use it only in this way Sar was Egyptian, but later the technology of making it and the technique of using it were introduced to other countries by tourists and travelers and were welcomed and imitated. In ancient China, bases were built at a distance of 500 meters from each other, where soldiers equipped with fire extinguishing equipment were stationed and if there was a fire somewhere in the cities, they could reach there as soon as possible. And it had a function similar to the current fire department, so the first fire department dates back to that time.
    However, until around the 17th century AD, the studies and actions of nations to fight against fires were regional, scattered and inconsistent, and the people of each country acted based on their own facilities and findings. But since that time, with the progress of science and industry and the sudden growth of information of human societies in the field of various subjects which was the basis of many inventions and initiatives, numerous fire extinguishers were invented by different nations and spread around the world and evolved over time and because Usually, all human innovations and inventions are born out of necessity, the massive fire that happened in big cities like Tokyo, London, New York, etc., caused people of different communities to establish centers to deal with similar incidents and experience put themselves at each other’s disposal and the result of that cooperation was the establishment of numerous firefighting organizations that are open today in the world and have the most modern firefighting equipment at their disposal.
    Unfortunately, due to the fact that before the constitutional movement in Iran, writing social history was not very popular and historians have not shown appreciable interest in recording other events except for political and war events, or the conditions of leaders and sultans. The information we have about the occurrence of small and large fires is very limited and only from the reign of Naser al-Din Shah, when the local sheriffs were required to prepare daily reports of the conditions in their area of ​​responsibility and send them to the court. And the location of some fires and sometimes the damages caused by them are available. including
    On the 14th of Dhul-Qa’dah, a few days ago, three doors of shops in Sabzevar city caught fire and caused great damage to the owners of shops and houses.
    On the 29th of Muharram, the market caught fire two nights ago. Twenty-four doors of the shop were burned and twelve thousand tomans of damage was caused to the people of the market, and the people’s furniture was taken away by the city mobs.

    The first fire department in Iran

    Establishment of the first fire department
    Amir Kabir, who had several reform plans to change the face of the country and based on what he saw and heard about the lives of people in other countries and above all based on his studies and thoughts, he was interested in making a new plan and ending the country’s long-standing backwardness, was the first one who decided to In parallel with informing the people about the dangers of fire, he also created an institution to deal with fire in all parts of the country and established the first fire department in Iran by his hands. And since he became the crown prince of Naser al-Din, he served in Tarbriz for many years and had seen the facilities and Firefighting equipment has been allocated, it was intended to model the measures taken in that city and generalize firefighting throughout the country. But alas, he did not live long enough to implement his ideas, and the recklessness of the young Qajar Shah and the conspiracy and sedition of those who, based on their own goals or affiliations, did not see him, caused many of his ideas to change the face of Iran, including The establishment of an institution to deal with fire should not be left out of the planning stage and remain unimplemented.
    Tabriz was the first city where a municipality was established and “Qasim Khan Wali”, which in the history of that city is considered a symbol of service to the people in the early years of the 13th century, 10 years after the birth of the municipality, in another corner of the city, on Khagani Street, on the corner of Bahadri Street. Today, he founded an organization that was opened in the month of Ardibehesht 1296, and because of the special task that was defined for it, it was known as the fire department from the very beginning. Before that, in the year 1221 A.D., the agents of Tsarist Russia had allocated facilities for firefighting, which consisted of several two-way hand pumps, made of bronze and copper, for pumping water, to ensure security and protect their interests. The actions of the Russians in Dartbriz, although the first document about the establishment of an official institution to fight fire in Iran is 165 years ago, but historical documents testify that those facilities were only used to extinguish fire and were not effective in dealing with other incidents. While Qasim Khan Vali, when he established the Tabriz Fire Department, he included dealing with other unexpected incidents, from floods and earthquakes to debris, falling from a height, etc., among the duties of the fire department and tried to find the tools and equipment to deal with it. accidents should also be prepared and placed at the disposal of the officers working in the fire department.
    One of the most significant features of the Tabriz Fire Department, which is considered a novel initiative in itself, is the construction of the “Yanqin” tower, which was located next to the fire department building, and now the number one station and the central building of the Tabriz Fire and Security Services Organization are located adjacent to it.
    The word “Yanqin” in the language of Azerbaijani people means fire and conflagration, and the philosophy behind the beautiful and spectacular Yanqin tower, which is 23 meters high and is considered one of the famous buildings of the Qajar period in Dartbriz, was that because at the time of the establishment of the fire department, there were no telecommunications facilities. There was no way for the people to contact the fire department quickly, and there was a possibility that in the event of a fire, the officers would be in the middle of the incident and arrive at the scene of the fire when the work has already been done and there has been a huge loss. and ordered that at all hours of the day and night, some people should be on guard in the observation room on top of it, and in case of seeing smoke, fire or thick dust in any part of the city, they would identify the place and then, by ringing the big bronze bell on top of the tower It was installed to notify the officers who were stationed at the bottom of the tower so that they could rush there.
    Also, it is mentioned that Yanqin tower had another function and there was a lamp installed on top of it which was lit at night and travelers who entered the city at night could use it to find their way and find their way if necessary. That initiative a hundred years ago was noticed by most of the tourists who visited Tabriz. To the extent that most of them have mentioned the mentioned tower in their travelogues, and their emphasis made the fire officials of several countries, including France, get to know the way of work and the performance of Tabrizi firefighters, and by following it, they transferred the Iranian technology of that historical period to their country. and exploit.
    The plan of the mentioned tower, which was considered the tallest building in the city before the development of Tabriz city and from the top of which all parts of the city could be clearly seen, is circular inside, a series of spiral stairs leads to its upper part and has eight skylights. It is a crescent and its lower part, which consists of a quadrangle, is considered as the base of the tower and leads to a stone cornice.
    In the past few decades, on the one hand, due to the development of the city and the approach of Tabrizi residents to building high-rise buildings, and on the other hand, due to the lack of attention of the guardians of cultural heritage, which caused the construction of numerous buildings in the sanctuary of the tower and its corners, the Yanqin Tower gradually lost its former importance. He lost and his reputation began to decline. In addition, the emergence of new and advanced communication facilities, such as the telephone, made the use of the tower unjustifiable. However, nothing has diminished the prestige and importance of the tower, and in addition to the fact that it has been registered in the list of national monuments since 1377 as the oldest building related to the country’s fire department, last year the second fire station “Amir Kardoost”, the CEO of the organization Tabriz fire department and security services made a proposal that since Tabriz was the first city to have a fire department and Yanqin Tower is considered the oldest symbol of fire department in Iran, it is appropriate to honor it at the same time as the ceremony.On the occasion of the 100th year of the establishment of the municipality in Tabriz, Yanqin Tower, some of its tools, equipment and machines are also available at the training office of the Tabriz Fire Department and is visited by travelers and other interested parties on various occasions, to become the country’s fire museum. .
    Until 1371, Tabriz Fire Department performed its duties as a unit and department affiliated to the municipality, under the supervision of the former municipality and the next municipality. However, in 1371, the constitution of its establishment as an independent organization was approved by the Ministry of Interior, and since then it has been operating as an independent institution with a clear description of duties.

    The first fire department in Iran

    The initial formation of firefighting
    The second and third fire department of the country was established by the British government in Khuzestan, due to the need to protect the oil wells of Suleiman Mosque and the Abadan refinery, and because after the martyrdom of Amir Kabir in February 1231, his successors not only did not follow his thoughts, but also tried to implement some of his actions. to neutralize it, no other action was taken in this regard and the idea of ​​establishing an institution to deal with fire in all parts of the country, for which it seems that Amir Kabir had prepared the preparations, was forgotten. Until in 1260 A.H. and during Naseruddin Shah’s first trip to Farang, during his stay in the city of “Haji Tarkhan” in Russia, when a group of firemen from that city held a drill in his presence, he was so excited that he said that the drill was of great interest to him and During his second trip to Farang, when he visited a fire station, the equipment that was available to extinguish the fire made him more surprised and saddened by the fact that despite seeing the efforts that the people of other countries of the world were making to deal with the fire and with After his foreign trips, several amazing fires occurred in the country, even the thought of creating an organization similar to what was going on in other countries and had become a matter of course, did not come to his mind and until years after his assassination by Mirza Rezai Kermani, who on Friday It happened on the 17th of Dhu Qadah 1313 AH, Iran still lacked organization and equipment to prevent and deal with the fires of Khanman Soz, and only in the last years of his reign, an office was established under the name of Teheran Accountability, which was responsible for the administration, municipality and justice, i.e. city administration, municipality, etc. The current administration was carried out simultaneously, and that department, which some of its employees were referred to as “Mohatsab”, consisted of two branches with the titles “Ethasab” and “Tanzif”, in each of the affiliated branches, some deputies, They served as bedspreads and sweepers. Mohtasibs did their work under the supervision of the government and the sheriff of the city and supervised the handling of crimes and sometimes the trade and sale of goods, and the employees of the cleaning branch were also tasked with collecting garbage from all corners of the city with basic equipment and facilities. 100 heads of horses, mules and donkeys that they had at their disposal, should be transferred outside the city. Also, the cleaning branch employed some cleaners who were required to sprinkle water on the streets and alleys of the city with musk so that the dust caused by the movement of people, vehicles, and cattle does not disturb the citizens. The occurrence of fires should also interfere with extinguishing the fire, which is not mentioned, because the facilities and equipment available to the Saqqas were not proportionate to their duties, they could not play a significant role in fighting fire and extinguishing the fire, and to put it better, their presence or absence did not make a difference. .
    That situation continued with intensity and weaknesses until the constitutional movement. But after the signing of the constitutional decree in 1285 and the changes that occurred in the structure of the country’s administration, the constitutionalists, who were familiar with the principles of division of labor and the methods of city administration in western societies, decided to organize the situation in Tehran and establish civil institutions according to certain criteria. Among their actions in this regard was that in each city, they appointed someone as the head of the city and entrusted him with the implementation of urban affairs, and some time later, the same thought became the introduction to the establishment of an organization called the municipality.
    The primary purpose of establishing a municipality is to protect the interests of cities and satisfy the needs of city dwellers, such as managing movable and immovable property, keeping capital belonging to the city, creating facilities for people to have easy access to food, keeping alleys, squares and streets clean, lighting The city was at night, the cleanliness of the bathrooms, etc., and for the first time, the insurance of the buildings belonging to the city against fire, etc., was taken into consideration, and it was hoped that the municipality would take this matter seriously, which depended on saving life and property against fire. However, the municipality did not take significant action in the field of firefighting and did not exceed what was going on in the last years of Naseruddin Shah’s reign, and as a result, there was no change in the tools and equipment used by the fire fighting officers.
    After the shameful coup of Reza Khan in 1299, and especially after the beginning of Reza Khan’s reign, the organization of the municipality changed significantly, and in order for the city of Tehran to get organized and get out of the previous situation, in 1303, Tehran municipality created a system He bought a sprinkler car to sprinkle water on the dirt streets of the city, and a year later, when Major General Karim Bouzerjamhari was in charge of Tehran municipality, the presence of the same sprinkler car became a prelude to the formation of an institution to deal with fires in Tehran. In this way, they added a few meters of pipe, a pipe head and some valves to that machine so that it can be effective for extinguishing possible fires.
    At the beginning of the establishment of the fire department, a German named “Henry Friedrich Doel”, who was one of the army mechanics, was appointed as the technical director and a White Russian officer named “Colonel Verba” (who had fled to Iran) was appointed as its military director. and the said department started its work with 15 personnel, all of whom were military rank-and-file. But in the following years, along with the equipment of the fire department, there were changes in the management staff of that organization, and its administration was placed under the supervision of Iranian chiefs who were chosen from among the army officers, and the number of its employees was increased.

    The first fire department in Iran

    The fire department started its activity at 300 meters from Topkhaneh Square and at the beginning of Chirag Bargh Street (next to Amir Kabir), and in a rented place in Hosseini’s garage that belonged to a person named “Seyd Asda…” and a part of the West garage that is in front of Arab Street was located in the north of the same street, and a sprinkler car was its only asset, although it was nominally dedicated to fire fighting, but it was actually used for other purposes as well.
    At that time, because the only source of supply of drinking water for the people of Tehran was the open and heavily polluted streams that passed by the streets, and the consumption of polluted water sometimes spread contagious diseases throughout the city, some people, with horse carts that were a large source of metal It was installed on them, they took water from the source of the aqueducts and delivered it to the citizens’ homes in different places, and they received a small amount for each bucket of water delivered to the applicants.
    As a result of the people’s acceptance of safe water and the prosperity of the horse cart owners, who were referred to as “water”, the municipality officials decided to carry out an activity in this field as well. Therefore, they used the car that previously was only used to sprinkle water on the streets and was given to that department after the establishment of the fire department, to supply water to different areas of the city.
    Filling the water source installed on the carts, because the owners of the carts had to take buckets of water from the aqueduct and pour it into the source to fill it, was associated with a lot of difficulty and waste of time. But the mentioned car also had a pump engine, which was used to fill the source easily and in a short time. On the other hand, the low speed of the horse-drawn cart caused the water needed by the citizens to reach them late, while the mentioned car did not have this problem either. As a result, the municipal water supply by car was able to attract people’s opinion in a short period of time. For this reason, later on, the municipality bought five cars similar to that car from Germany in order to expand water supply, and as a result, the fire department got six cars that were still used for water supply.
    Because in the first two years of the establishment of the fire department, several fires occurred in Tehran, and when they occurred, water sprinklers were scattered throughout the city, and practically the existing equipment could not play a significant role in extinguishing those fires, and on the other hand, the people’s demand for safe water was increasing, and apparently the fire department had the duty to manage the urban water supply in parallel with the fire department. “which had solid tires, was purchased from Germany and was completely placed at the disposal of the fire department. Some talented chauffeurs (drivers) and old sergeants of the Bahadri and Ahinin regiments were transferred to the fire department to operate and drive the new cars, and the fire department apparently got organized. However, due to the expansion of the city, the increase in its population and the workshops that started operating in the suburbs of Tehran, sometimes, especially when there were severe fires, or when fires broke out in several places in the city at the same time, the firefighting organizations alone could not solve the problem, and as a result, the relief forces of other organizations, including the Nazmiyah (municipality) and Qashon (army) were also used to help the firemen, and according to the instructions that were established for the officers, they had the duty after extinguishing each fire. fire, prepare a report about how the incident happened and the actions they took in relation to it, a collection of which can be found in various books written about old Tehran, and one of them is as follows: “Fire occurred – three hours before Today at noon, a fire broke out in the residential building of Mr. Naser Nadamani located on Shah Abad Street. The officials of Nazmia and Municipality worked to put it out with extreme seriousness using fire engines and other devices. In the meantime, a fire engine of Qashon Department also arrived and after two hours of ignition and burning of the roof and some of the walls and most of the furniture, they succeeded. They tried to turn it off and prevent it from spreading to other houses. Mr. Kafil Baladiyeh and Adib al-Sultaneh Sardari were also present there and helped the officers. The cause of the fire is still unknown and it seems to have been caused by a cigarette.
    The available statistics indicate that until around 1307, the total firefighting equipment in Tehran was 15 new and ready fire extinguishers, 3 “Mercedes Benz”, 4 “Skoda” units, 2 “N.A.G” Porsche units and 4 The engine pump device, plus 84 wrecker trucks that were placed at the disposal of the fire department after being used by other departments and had no effect on the fire extinguishing drum. Therefore, the firefighting equipment was not as it should be and perhaps did not meet the needs of Tehran, and instead of analyzing the problems, the officials conducted a study on the expansion of the city and predicted the problems that existed on the way of the firemen’s duty, and considered the development of the firefighting only to the extent of buying cars. Until an incident woke up the authorities. In this way, on October 8, 1307, the industrial cinema hall located on Lalezar Street caught fire. The fire in that hall, which was considered one of the most modern and well-equipped cinemas in the capital and was dedicated to showing movies for women, because of the flammable materials in it, intensified in a short time and endangered the surrounding buildings as well, and the firemenArmy engineers and police officers worked for hours to put out the fire. But unfortunately, with all the dedication and selflessness of the fire officials, although no one was harmed in terms of life, when it was extinguished, only a handful of ashes remained from that well-equipped cinema.
    The next day, while publishing a detailed report of the incident, the newspaper “Information” pointed out the need to strengthen Tehran’s fire department and noted: “… when we really think about it, we realize that we don’t have any fire extinguishers, we want a special fire department, because As soon as a fire breaks out and the office’s phone rings, the whistle of the fire engines will be raised from the other side. Unfortunately, this issue has not been paid attention to and the officials of Nazmia and municipality have to put themselves at risk of fire due to the lack of sufficient equipment. However, we hope that the municipality will soon prepare enough equipment for firefighting and provide a few fire engines and administration and a special budget for this purpose to reduce the hardships of the current fire department employees and officers and its risks. We will also provide in every way.”
    For several years, the fire department was still operating in Chirag Bargh street and in Hosseini and Gharb garages. Until, due to the expansion of the city and the number of fires that happened in different areas, the authorities finally realized that the machines and people they have at their disposal do not meet the needs of a city with the size and population of Tehran. For this reason, in the year 1310, with the follow-up of “Karim Agha Bouzar Jamhari”, who had the most responsibility in relation to the fire department and was called its chief manager, to build a building suitable for the duties of the fire department and also provide a budget according to The volume of its activities was prepared and submitted to the parliament, and with the approval of that proposal, in 1311, the fire department first moved to the eastern part of the former municipal health center and then outside the city limits, to Hassan Abad Square and the abandoned cemetery that was located there (location The current station number 1 of the Fire and Security Service Organization) was moved and a new building was constructed and gradually completed in that place, and all the organizations of the fire department were moved there.
    In 1313, “Hasan Khan Motazadi” was appointed as the head of the fire department. With his interest in his work, from the beginning of accepting the responsibility, he began to make extensive efforts to organize the firefighting affairs, and besides buying fireproof clothes for the firefighters, he also convinced the government to buy a firefighting ship from Germany. In order to put out the fire of the ships, it was used in the Mazandaran lake, and in this way, with his efforts, a fire department was established in Gilan, whose center was located in Anzali port.

    Firefighters extinguished the fire
    In the last years of the 1320s, when it became clear little by little that firefighting has the status of a specialized profession and its workers must have the necessary technical knowledge, it was felt necessary for firemen to have technical skills, and the government sent some employees of the fire department to undergo a professional training course. sent them abroad, and after those people returned to the country, the fire department organized special classes for its officers, and those who had been trained abroad were employed by teaching what they had learned in those classes. Teach your colleagues.
    In this way, the fire department took the first steps to become a capable institution and three years later, at the end of 1333 A.S., when the skilled forces were provided as needed, the title of the fire department was changed to fire department, and because at that time it coincided with With the development of industries and the formation of new residential areas around Tehran, it was decided that Tehran Fire Department, in addition to having a central office, should also have three branches in different parts of the city. The fire department was also located at the end of Shahbaz (Khaqani) Street, Shush Street and the end of Bahar Street.
    Also, due to the distance between Tehran and Shemiran, and because Shemiran was located at a higher altitude than Tehran in terms of geographical location, and when necessary, it was difficult to access its various points, and this often caused a delay in providing relief to the victims of the accident. The construction of a fire department in Shemiran was also considered, and in 1334, one year after the opening of three fire departments in Tehran, the Shemiran base also reached the operational stage, and in the same year, a contract for the purchase of four new fire engines was signed with the Iranian Araj factory, which Some time ago, he had started studies on the simulation of the model of foreign fire engines, it was signed and that equipment was given to Shemiran municipality after delivery.
    At that time, despite the fact that there were several tankers with tanks in the fire service, as usual, the officers were still facing a lack of facilities and equipment, and the available documents show that the city was expanding and its size and population In addition, the firefighting organizations did not grow and when large fires occurred, the firemen were practically faced with a lack of facilities. For this reason, in addition to the special water-sprinkling cars that the fire brigade itself had, freight cars, meat trucks and garbage trucks were also provided to the fire department officers as auxiliary equipment, and on the other hand, during the hours outside of rescue operations, even cars It was used specifically for fighting fire to supply water to neighborhoods, sprinkle water on streets, water trees and other miscellaneous services of this kind, although many experts have stated that the wrong tradition that was prevalent for years, in turn, is an important factor in the backwardness of the system. It was the fire department of the country.
    Also, until about 30 years after the establishment of the fire department, the employees of that department did not have the benefit of personal protective equipment and during their missions, they had to participate in operations with ordinary shoes and clothes. Later, uniform work clothes were considered for firefighters and a limited number of safety helmets were also available to them, but in the following years, the fire department grew in parallel with the development of Tehran, and as day by day, it was faced with heavier responsibilities. , to some extent, this importance was taken into consideration. And when buying fire extinguishers, they also bought personal protective equipment. Among other things, in 1336, 10 anti-gas masks and 6 anti-smoke masks, and in 1337, the use of fire-resistant clothing was used in the fire department, and over time, the Tehran fire department was equipped with snookers, ladders, floor machines, equipped tankers, motor pumps, nets. Rescuers, fireproof clothes, anti-gas masks, anti-smoke masks, etc. were equipped. Until now, the largest ladder in the Middle East and the third largest ladder in the world with a height of 64 meters is at the disposal of the Tehran fire department.
    In 1340 A.H., a unit named “Aid and Rescue” group was established at Hasan Abad station to provide assistance and rescue to the victims of the accident in addition to extinguishing the fire.
    In 1349, according to the traffic in the streets of Tehran and by the order of the then mayor, a cadre of motorcyclists, with motorcycles that were equipped with wireless and could carry up to 120 kg of load, was formed and it was decided that at the time of fire, at the speed of the equipment to bring preparations to the scene of the accident and carry out initial firefighting operations until the arrival of heavy vehicles and necessary forces, and later several cities were also equipped with similar equipment. In addition to this, in 1344, the Budget Commission of the National Assembly, in its third session of December, agreed to purchase several fire engines for the Civil Aviation Administration in order to improve the safety of the country’s airports, and based on that agreement, four Leyland diesel engines for firefighting at the airport, two An ambulance of the Chevrolet type and three fire-fighting jeeps were purchased to deal with possible fires at the airport.
    The main problem of the fire department until 1350 was that since the establishment of the fire department in Tehran until 1350, the size of Tehran increased rapidly, while the number of fire stations increased slowly, and in 1350, despite the fact that several new stations began to be built in Tehran. became active, the number of new fire stations reached 7 units. But in the following years, the expansion and development of firefighting accelerated. For example, in 1353 threeAnother base was added to the number of stations.

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