Fire sprinklers are components of fire suppression systems, which discharge water when the effects of a fire are detected, such as when the ambient temperature exceeds a predetermined temperature. Fire sprinklers are widely used worldwide, with more than 40 million sprinkler heads installed annually. In buildings protected by properly designed and installed sprinklers, more than 99 percent of fires are controlled by fire sprinklers alone.
The small difference between hanging, standing, wall and hidden fire sprinklers has a great impact on life safety. In this article, we review the different types of sprinklers.
A pendent sprinkler is suspended from high ceiling pipes and distributes water in a dome or cone using a convex deflector. Unlike hidden pendant sprinklers, which are hidden behind decorative panels, the head of a traditional pendant fire sprinkler is visible after installation.
Manufacturers offer hanging sprinklers in a wide range of K-factors, orifice sizes and water spray patterns to protect all types of buildings, multi-level warehouses, etc. The most common pendant sprinkler has a 1/2 (12.7 mm) connection thread and a factor of 5.6, such as those found in Viking’s VK302 and VK102, Tyco’s TY-B sprinkler family, Victaulic’s V27 FireLock, and Senju’s ZN sprinkler. Slight differences in ceiling sprinkler approvals and UL safety listings, design, and manufacturing process can make a sprinkler more suitable for some environments than others.
Special coatings produced in accordance with NFPA 13 increase the life of the main components in places such as swimming pools, steam rooms, beach hotels, as well as factories and industrial spaces where there are particles and corrosive vapors. Tyco’s white polyester coating, used with pendant sprinklers in the TY-B family with a 5.6K quick response factor and standard, is both UL and C-UL listed for corrosion resistance.
Cast frames, such as those found on Victaulic’s 5.6K V27 FireLock pendant sprinklers, are formed under high pressure in a metal mold and have a smooth, uniform surface with small indentations. This is not the case with other sprinklers.
Hanging sprinkler protector
Most hanging sprinklers include a decorative ring called a scotch to cover sheet holes at the entry point. You should know that they are not just decorative and have some benefits. Installing pendant sprinklers without a shield allows heat to pass through the sprinkler head, potentially delaying water discharge.
There are three types of sprinklers:
Flat scuttles for sprinkler bodies flush with the roof floor.
Adjustable sconces for bodies that hang down to the ceiling.
Recessed scotch for bodies that are installed slightly above the ceiling.
Scaffolds must be specifically approved for use with a sprinkler and sized to the proper K-factor or orifice size. For example, Tyco’s TY-B series recessed sprinklers only use style 15 or style 20 bases, Viking’s VK102 and VK 302 sprinklers require E-1 / F-1 style scuttles, and the V27 series Victaulic requires V27 recessed scuttles.
Standing or upright fire sprinkler
Standing sprinklers spray water upwards towards a concave deflector and act as a dome-shaped spray. And to cover certain areas and prevent the accumulation of ice and debris in the head, a deflector is installed. Stand-alone sprinklers are installed where obstructions interfere with coating and are exposed to freezing temperatures in dry pipe systems.
Standing sprinklers are often used in warehouses or industrial spaces that have renovated and prepared structures such as: modern office buildings and stylish restaurants.
For industrial, commercial and storage spaces, the most suitable sprinklers are standing type with 3/4 (19.05 mm) connection and 8.0 factor. Many upright sprinklers are also available with a smaller 5.6K orifice, including Tyco’s TY-FRB series and Victaulic’s V27 series and VK300 models.
While upright sprinklers are the mainstay of all sprinkler manufacturers, not all upright fire sprinklers are created equal.
Corrosion resistant coatings
In 2012, Viking added an electroless nickel PTFE (ENT) anti-rust coating to several products in its commercial sprinkler line. In doing so, Viking joins Victaulic and others in finally being able to survive UL 199’s rigorous 30-day corrosion test with no evidence of rust.
Alternatively, many of Viking’s Standard Response upright sprinklers, including the 5.6K Micromatic VK100 and 8.0K Micromatic VK200, are available with corrosion-resistant coatings at low cost, and in addition, a wrench designed specifically for these sprinkler models. It is used to install these sprinklers without removing the corrosion resistant coating.
While standing or upright sprinklers cannot be hidden or hidden under a cover plate, proper system design can make standing models less visible. Tyco’s TY-FRB series sprinklers are available in a 5.6 K factor and slim body and are designed for banks, hotels and other commercial businesses where appearance is important.
Erect Response Sprinklers (ESFR)
First developed in the 1980s, rapid response (ESFR) sprinklers have revolutionized fire prevention in high combustible environments with extensive fire capability. Tyco has innovated as the first ESFR sprinkler on the market. In general, a standing sprinkler can handle even the most severe fire conditions, withstand corrosive fumes, and is easy to install.
Wall fire sprinkler
Wall sprinklers are installed along walls or under beams when ceiling plumbing is not available or there are aesthetic concerns.
Most are designed to protect small rooms, closets or hallways and have a semi-circular deflector that creates a crescent-shaped spray pattern. Actually, according to the NFPA13 standard, the wall sprinkler is a sprinkler with a special deflector. This deflector is designed to discharge most of the water away from the wall closest to the sprinkler (the wall closest to the sprinkler). The near wall in horizontal wall sprinklers is the wall on which the sprinkler is installed horizontally. The professional manufacturers of wall sprinklers in the world design the structure of these sprinklers in such a way that in addition to throwing more water in front, some water is sprayed on the wall behind the sprinkler and these walls are also cooled.
The spray profile in this type of sprinkler is usually in the form of a quarter sphere. There are two types of wall sprinklers. Horizontal sprinklers and vertical sprinklers. In terms of performance sensitivity and fire response speed, wall sprinklers, like other sprinklers, are classified into two types of quick response and standard response.
Horizontal wall sprinklers shall only be installed under flat, flat, horizontal ceilings in accordance with NFPA listings, approvals, and guidelines. At the same time, high and low sprinklers can be installed vertically and on the roof of buildings. Horizontal wall mounted models are used in hotels, restaurants, churches, and a variety of commercial structures, and most side sprinklers use a 1/2″ (12.7 mm) connection and have a 5.6 K factor. Horizontal wall models can usually be recognized by inserting the letter H or WH on the deflector, which reminds the designers and implementers of sprinkler systems that the correct operation of this sprinkler is only possible in horizontal installation conditions. It should be noted that the deflector of all wall sprinklers must be at least 4 inches from the ceiling or side wall. And vertical wall sprinklers should be no more than 6 inches from the ceiling. There is one thing that causes sprinklers to malfunction, and that is stagnant or dead air. According to the NFPA 13 standard, none of the sprinklers should ever be installed in a stagnant space. In the figure below, the red part refers to the stagnant space, in which you should not install your sprinkler:
While paints can damage and erode the series over time, manufactured coatings can increase its lifespan by protecting against corrosion. For example, most manufacturers offer corrosion-resistant PTFE (ENT) coatings. But in 2014, Victaulic introduced the VC-250 coating to its FireLock sprinkler line. This material is able to withstand exposure to a greater number of chemicals including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, ammonia and nitric acid. In general, wall sprinklers require careful installation, a process that can be made easier with the right accessories. All manufacturers offer protective coatings for wall sprinklers, but these coatings must be selected with consideration of the specific chemical hazards faced by the sprinkler.
Hidden fire sprinkler
Nowadays, due to the increase in the use of sprinklers in all places, as well as the sensitivity of people on preserving the beauty of the environment, the use of hidden sprinklers has increased greatly. This model is made in a special frame. This type is installed backwards and their frame is flush with the ceiling. This heat-sensitive plate separates from the sprinkler head at a temperature of approximately 20 degrees lower and causes the sprinkler head to activate to discharge water. This sprinkler is used in hotels, commercial buildings, airports and luxury environments.
By mistake and due to people’s lack of awareness, it has sometimes been seen that a series of ordinary female bottoms + a frame are used to create a hidden sprinkler, which you should know will put people’s lives and property at risk. And in this case, the sprinkler will lose its efficiency.
Like pendant, freestanding, and wall-mounted models, most concealed sprinklers have a 1/2″ (12.7 mm) connection thread and a 5.6 K factor. Concealed sprinklers include Victaulic’s V38 series, Senju’s CN-QR sprinklers, and the RFII series ( Royal Flush) Tyco’s noted. It is also important to note that the cover plate temperature of concealed sprinklers varies with the sprinkler head activation temperature, but is often set to 139F (59C) on 155F (68C) sprinklers and 200F (93C) on 165F (74C) sprinklers. .
In general, there is no “best” sprinkler, and the application and model of each one will be different based on the location. Fire sprinkler designers and installers are licensed to ensure that the type is appropriate for the location, ambient temperature and fire hazard, type of occupation, and architectural design of the structure.
Sort by their series
Female bottom sprinkler head: Female bottom sprinklers spray water in a circle.
The lower sprinkler head of the hidden woman: the water spraying pattern of this model is circular.
Balazen sprinkler heads: provide a circular spray pattern.
Hugging sprinkler head: This model sprays water in a semi-circle from the wall
Because the ambient air temperature can vary greatly depending on the use of a space or the surrounding environment, sprinklers are categorized for different activation temperatures. The table below is based on the NFPA (US National Fire Code) table. However, manufacturers may have sprinklers with different temperatures.
|Fuse connection color||The color of the glass bubble||Sprinkler activation temperature||Maximum temperature||Classification|
|Black ، without color||orange(135°F) ، Red(155°F)||135°F – 170°F||100°F||Normal|
|white||yellow(175°F) ، Green(200°F)||175°F – 225°F||150°F||average level|
|Blue||Blue||250°F – 300°F||225°F||Top|
|Red||Purple||325°F – 375°F||300°F||too high|
|Green||Black||400°F – 475°F||375°F||too high|
|orange||Black||500°F – 575°F||475°F||super high|
The first Iranian sprinkler – the national production of Iftikhar Melli
Hamiyar Energy Company is the sales representative of German JOB brand heat bulbs in Iran
Use of heat bulbs certified by American UL
Types of fire sprinklers manufactured by Hamyar Energy Industrial Group and Factories:
down female HE
High female HE
Next to the woman (wall) HE
In degrees and types of response to fire:
57 °C – 68 °C – 79 °C – 93 °C – 141 °C – 182 °C – 260 °C
135°F -155°F -175°F -200°F -286°F -360°F -500°F
The color of bulbs of different degrees in order: orange-red-yellow-green-blue-purple-black