Transportation of dangerous substances
Hazardous goods are materials and items that pose a potential risk to humans and facilities and are classified in 9 classes according to the standards of the US Department of Transportation. DOT is the US agency for the transportation, storage and handling of hazardous materials. The divisions of this organization are very wide, so that this organization has identified and classified about 3000 substances and made them subject to the law of transportation of dangerous substances and has fulfilled the role of regulation and labeling and transportation of dangerous substances. This organization is under the Ministry of Road and Transportation of the United States of America. This organization has estimated that in 2008, excluding pipeline cargo and ocean-going tankers, 817,000 dangerous cargoes weighing 4 million tons were transported daily in the United States, which means 300 million tons of dangerous cargo weighing two billion tons annually. . Discussed dangerous substances are 18% of the total shipments, and the largest amount of dangerous substances transported in the systems is petroleum products and their derivatives.
Note: According to the laws, transportation of dangerous substances by air is prohibited.
Note: This organization prepares guidelines and regulations regarding commercial purposes and international exchanges.
Class 1) Explosives, which includes six subclasses:
Any chemical compound or mixture or device whose primary or general purpose is to act through explosion with the sudden release of gas and energy is called an explosive.
The materials that are made for anjar, even devices or tools such as detonators are in the category of explosives.
Class 2) Gases:
2-1) Combustible gases (in amounts greater than 3000 liters in a road tank vehicle, a rail tank wagon or a mobile tank).
2-2) non-flammable and non-toxic gases.
2-3) poisonous gases.
Class 3) Flammable liquids (flammable liquids in packaging groups one and two in quantities greater than 3000 liters in a road tank vehicle, a rail tank wagon or a mobile tank).
Class 4) Flammable solids:
1-4) Elements with spontaneous reaction and elements with neutral reaction
2-4) Elements capable of sudden ignition.
3-4) Elements that produce flammable gases when in contact with water.
5th floor )
1-5) Oxidizing elements (oxidizing liquids of packing group 1 in quantities greater than 3000 liters in a road tank device, a rail tank wagon or a mobile tank).
5-2) organic peroxides
Class 6) Toxic and infectious elements
Category A: Very dangerous where a small amount will be dangerous in water or air. Like arsenic and nitrogen dioxide.
Category B: Milder than A
Class 7) Radioactive materials: will be examined further
Class 8) Corrosive elements
Class 9) Miscellaneous dangerous goods and materials
If the dangerous substance is subject to the organization (DAT), the following should be considered:
1- If more than one dangerous substance is transported, it must be packed separately and separated according to the class of dangerous substances.
2- Do not place dangerous substances in the spaces where people are placed in vehicles. In addition, do not leave the chemical substance in the place where it is stored in the device.
3- The materials that have been kept under extreme cold must be equipped with gas discharge and make sure that the resulting gases cannot penetrate into the people’s compartment.
4- The article must have a code that refers to a code or number in the organization.
The system of nine classification and installation of labels and placards is effective in most countries and helps people to quickly identify dangerous goods, their properties and their risks.
They sort materials from different classes for transportation for compatible and incompatible goods under special regulations.
Chemicals, both during storage and transportation, must be handled according to this rule, to ensure that they do not mix in the event of a spill or spill:
In this case, the separation does not include two classes and two substances can be placed in one place without any danger.
In this case, two classes should be separated and there should be at least three meters distance between them.
The two corresponding floors must be transported separately.
In this case, two classes of dangerous materials should not be placed in one compartment or room, but in two adjacent rooms. Therefore, they should be placed in two separate rooms with a distance of at least 10 meters.