Fire prevention equipment
The famous saying is prevention is better than cure, it is true and meaningful in all aspects of our life. The cost of treatment has always been much higher than the cost of prevention. Costs do not necessarily mean financial issues and include spiritual and social issues as well. For example, the fire incident in the Plasko building, in addition to heavy financial costs, also included heavy emotional costs for bereaved families, heavy social costs and even heavy credit costs for the country. One of the most important categories of firefighting equipment is fire prevention equipment. These equipments help to reduce the possibility of accidents and avoid the financial and life costs of accidents.
The use of fire prevention equipment or fire prevention equipment is one of the most important things that make the building safe. As it is clear from the name of fire prevention equipment, they must have high resistance against fire. Fire resistance does not mean complete resistance. This means that these equipments are resistant to fire up to a certain temperature, and if the temperature exceeds certain limits, the prevention equipment will also have an accident.
Today, a lot of emphasis is placed on the safety of various structures, including steel structures and metal frames. Fire prevention equipment plays an important role in controlling the destruction caused by fire, so that they lead to minimize the possible loss of life and property caused by fire.
Another goal of retrofitting using fire prevention equipment is that it makes it possible to provide more opportunities for fire extinguishing operations and saving people in the fire, as well as preventing the spread and progress of fire and increasing more than The size of the structures prevents heat.
Among the fire prevention equipment, the following can be mentioned:
Many companies are providing items such as fire extinguishers and smoke masks for emergencies. Good quality smoke alarms and fire doors are also installed in construction facilities. In fact, we hear a lot about fire doors and see them everywhere, but some of us don’t really know why they are there and how they can help us all in the event of a fire. You should know that fire doors are doors with a degree of fire resistance that are used to reduce the spread of fire and smoke between different compartments of the building, which are made with a combination of the following:
Glass, plaster, steel, timber, vermiculite and aluminum quantities, it should also be noted that these doors are approved by licensed fire door specialists.
Having fire doors provides a lot of security in an institution. Installing them has many benefits and as mentioned above, one of them is helping to reduce the spread of fire and smoke. During a fire incident, since the fire doors are closed, there is the effect of the fire on them on the other side, but their advantage is that due to their high resistance during the fire, people have enough time to find an escape route. . Depending on the resistance of the fire door, each door can hold smoke and fire for 3 to 4 hours.
Consider that there is a fire in a laboratory or building where chemicals are part of production, fire doors by their very nature provide protection from dangerous and harmful gases and prevent their release. . The study shows that most deaths in fire emergencies are not caused by the fire itself, but by smoke or any other gas elements. In addition, the release of these types of gases harms the environment and all the neighboring institutions and its manufacturers, and it will certainly leave a very big impact on us. Therefore, fire doors are very useful when it comes to minimizing property damage. A fire can spread in seconds and get out of control in minutes. If no fire doors are installed in the premises of a building, nothing can stop the fire and the fire will surely succumb to everyone. In fact, if a fire breaks out in an area, at least a fire door can contain it for a few hours, thus providing enough time for rescuers to put out the fire.
Installing fire doors is not an option but a requirement that every household or company must comply with. These doors must have a full fire rating certificate and, depending on the building classification, all fire doors must be inspected every 6 to 12 months.
Although buildings have become better equipped to withstand emergencies such as fire, modern life has simultaneously increased our fire hazards.
In the United States alone, a civilian fire occurred every 2 hours and 24 minutes in 2018, killing a total of nearly 3,000 people and causing $25.6 billion in property damage. became.
One of the problems is that today’s fires spread faster due to the prevalence of synthetic materials in the home.
According to John Dergenberg, director of safety at Underwriting Laboratories of America, residents in homes 30 years ago had an average of 14-17 minutes to save themselves from a house fire. Today this time is close to 2-3 minutes. A small flame can become a major threat to life in less than 30 seconds, and it takes less than five minutes for an entire property to catch fire, especially if these flames come into contact with chemicals such as hygiene products or paint, even with intense heat. They spread further and the fire quickly becomes poisonous and the smoke becomes black, which can even poison the victims.
In January 2020, vehicles were engulfed in flames when a massive fire broke out in the garage of a family home in Chicago. However, a fire door prevented the flames from spreading and triggered an alarm. The homeowners were awakened by the smoke detector alarm and were able to escape unharmed along with their family dog.
Tragically, the exact opposite has happened and is happening many times. In 2017, Glenfell Tower, a 24-storey block of flats in north London, burned down, killing 72 people. Many consider it one of the worst disasters in modern Britain.
Just like normal people, fire passes through doors to spread from one room to another. If the doors used are not fireproof, in some cases they may burn and contribute to the disaster. Fire naturally takes the path of least resistance, which is usually the exit from the door. Fire doors are doors with a certain degree of resistance to fire that can help contain a fire in a room or part of a building and reduce the spread of fire, which allows more time for firefighters to arrive and Provide escape of passengers.
Also, the appropriate hardware closure along with the automatic opening and closing and turning of the door completes this fireproof ecosystem.
Of course, this only works if the resistance level of the fire door has been confirmed by the monitoring organization. In fact, all components of the entry system, including doors, hinges, locks, anti-theft elements, apprehension hardware, unlocking devices and free-turning devices, must all be formally specified by an expert. None of these will effectively stop the fire from spreading if the door is left open.
As fireproof doors are an obstacle to the spread of fire from one part to another building and they can resist fire for about 4 hours. But sometimes it can be an obstacle for people who want to get from one part of the building to another.
This can lead the occupants of a building to find an informal solution to hold the door open, such as holding it open with a piece of wood or cardboard.
Therefore, for fire doors to be effective, they should be easy to use and not limit the access of people in the building.
In addition, from a legal perspective, if a fire door installation discovers that the internal elements of the fire door have been opened, they can void the door’s insurance or even face criminal penalties.
Modern fire door models have features that allow the door to remain open, but close automatically in an emergency. In this way, a smoke detector can be connected to the building’s central system, and if the smoke detector It sounded, the fire door will be closed automatically.
In this way, the fire door can save people’s lives in emergency situations without creating obstacles in daily life.
Also, fire doors are heavy, this is one of the reasons why residents try to keep the door open.
The automatic opening of the door, when detecting the approach of people to the door, is one of the cases that, while minimizing the force of opening the door, does not cause a disturbance in the operation of the fireproof door.
While technology is helpful, educating building occupants is also important. Some fire doors contain a label that says: The fire door must be kept closed for fire safety, this is a simple but important reminder for those who pass through the area.
The fireproof door is one of the most important elements in reducing the speed of fire spread for large buildings and complexes, from office buildings to residential building applications and more. Various other aspects of a building may also increase its risks in the event of a fire. For example, healthcare environments such as hospitals and retirement communities are considered for mobility challenges and should be considered in every aspect of safety, including fire doors and smoke detectors. .
Also, depending on what else is in the building, such as flammable storage, a fire can spread more quickly. In any of these cases, fire doors are critical to slowing the spread of fire.
It should be noted that for door hardware needs, it is best to consult with an expert consultant to ensure that all necessary needs are implemented as soon as possible.
Here are some of the main features that should be considered in terms of interior and commercial use of fire doors:
Among the types of fireproof doors in Hamyar Energy Company, we can mention the following:
Using fireproof paint with specifications:
A: 500 microns (30 minutes against fire)
B: 1000 microns (60 minutes fire resistance)
C: 1500 microns (90 minutes fire resistance)
The third type:
1- Introduction of Promat company
Promat company is the largest producer of fire retardant and thermal insulation materials in the world, which has many factories and offices in Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. This company has become the only company in the world that offers a complete variety of these products by purchasing the largest companies that produce fire-fighting products, including Cafco International, in the last few years.
This company is recognized as one of the top companies in the field of production, supply and implementation of fireproof coatings by using capable engineering teams and by implementing unique construction and industrial projects.
The main approach of this company is based on the central control, providing the desired quality and satisfying the respected employers and serving our dear country, and it is in the list of companies approved by the fire department, and it designs, provides materials and implements fireproof coatings.
With the expansion of cities, industries, and the multitude of ongoing construction projects, especially elevation in big cities, serious issues regarding the safety of these structures have been raised. The implementation of electrical and mechanical installations in buildings, the use of combustible materials, the development of electricity and gas energy networks, and the use of various equipment have increased the possibility of fire in buildings. The amount of damage caused in recent years emphasizes the need to protect huge organizations and structures that have been prepared by spending a lot of money, time and energy, and it is hoped that with increasing awareness in this field and spending a small amount of money in the beginning for prevention Take action against possible future irreparable damages and costs.
When a fire starts (growth), the heat starts from the center of the fire and causes the ignition of other materials (Growth Period) and a rapid increase in temperature (Flash Over). In the stage of fire development (Developed Period), the fire includes all combustible materials and the temperature will reach 1000 degrees Celsius. After burning most of the combustible materials, the dimensions of the fire are reduced and the temperature of the fire is reduced and it drops to 920 degrees Celsius (Decay Period). In both stages of fire development and subsidence, there is a possibility of structure collapse.
3-1- Types of fire
Based on the type of fuel, they are divided into two main categories:
3-1-1- Cellulose fire
This fire is caused by the burning of cellulose products such as wood, lumber, paper, etc. In this type of fire, the temperature reaches 600 degrees Celsius in less than 10 minutes, and after 120 minutes, the temperature reaches 1000 degrees Celsius.
3-1-2- Hydrocarbon fire
This fire is caused by hydrocarbon fuels and chemical compounds, which mainly occurs in oil, gas, petrochemical industries, chemical warehouses and industrial centers. The temperature reaches more than 1000 degrees Celsius in less than 10 minutes.
It should be noted that cellulose fire reaches the point of development more slowly compared to hydrocarbon fire, but it takes more time to extinguish this type of fire than hydrocarbon fire.
2-3- Fire protection methods
3-2-1- Operating systems protecting against fire (Active)
Implementation of systems that are activated during a fire by factors such as heat and smoke, such as fire alarm systems or automatic fire extinguishing systems. This system is undoubtedly very effective, but alone it is not enough to deal with fire. Because the occurrence of any problem in the mechanism of fire detection, fire alarm or fire extinguishing (such as failure of water supply or operating valves) or any simple and small problem can make the system ineffective.
3-2-2- Passive fire protection systems
Implementation of fire-resistant coatings that are applied to the load-bearing components of the structure to prevent their destruction in a fire and provide the necessary time for escape or fire services. In this system, by applying a fireproof coating on the structure, it prevents it from disintegrating due to the increase in temperature, so that enough time is provided to get rid of the fire and also to provide firefighting services. The non-operating system is designed and applied to protect metal and concrete structures. By applying this system, the temperature of the structure will not reach the temperature level that causes the steel to bend and fall or cause the concrete structure to disintegrate. Passive fire protection systems are used as a complement to active fire protection systems.
4-1- Types of structures
4-1-1- Metal structures
Structural load-bearing steel has a bending temperature of 470-500 degrees Celsius and loses about half of its strength at 500-550 degrees Celsius, so it is very vulnerable to fire, which mainly requires fire resistance. Yes, according to the ISO834 and BS476 tables, iron metal reaches a temperature of 470 degrees Celsius in less than 10 minutes after a fire, which is the bending point of iron metal.
4-1-2- Concrete structures
In these structures, the mechanical resistance of concrete against heat decreases drastically after a temperature of 200 degrees Celsius, and when the temperature increases to 500 degrees Celsius, this resistance decreases to 50% of the initial value. Also, due to the evaporation of the existing crystallized water, the concrete will disintegrate and thus the structure will be destroyed and cause irreparable damages.
2-4- Necessity of fireproofing the structures
When the steel structure is exposed to fire, depending on the surface and volume of the steel, the temperature of the steel reaches 470-500 degrees Celsius within 5-15 minutes. At this temperature, steel loses almost half of its bending strength.
Depending on the type of use and the amount of load on the steel, the critical temperature of the various components in the structure is determined as follows:
Bearing columns 550 degrees Celsius
Bearing beams 620°C
This means that if the temperature of any element of the structure reaches the above-mentioned temperature, that component will lose its load-bearing resistance completely and the structure will collapse.
Therefore, in order to protect the structure and prevent the temperature of the components of the structure from reaching the above level, various methods are used, the most common of which is the use of non-functional systems resistant to fire (Passive Fire Protection).
In this method, the main load-bearing parts of the structure, which are most exposed to fire, are covered with fire-resistant coatings, so that in the event of a fire, they can avoid the total or partial collapse of the structure and its components due to the rise in temperature and softening. Avoid the structure.
Specifications of fire resistant coatings
Keeping the appearance and not cracking when faced with an increase in temperature
Being light in order not to impose additional load on the structure
Good adhesion to metal surface, especially after temperature increase
No production of toxic and dangerous gases when exposed to fire
Adequate mechanical resistance in order to maintain the appearance and health of the coating before exposure to fire in order to maintain efficiency during fire.
Appropriate resistance to environmental and atmospheric conditions
Easy to repair
Ease of implementation
6- Mechanism of performance of fireproof coatings
The very low heat transfer property of fireproof coating materials is the basis of fire resistance. Due to high conductive resistance, it prevents heat from reaching the structure.
The production of non-flammable gas such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, the formation of a molten layer of insulating glass, the creation of a porous carbon sponge layer of insulation, and absorption of heat by sublimation and prevention of heat transfer are all mechanisms of fire resistant coatings.
Types of fire resistant coatings
7-1- Mineral-based spray coatings
These coatings are a mixture of refractory minerals such as plaster, cement, vermiculite, mica, perlite, etc.
The density of these materials is much lower compared to concrete and plaster (250-450 kg/m³) and they are applied in the form of a paste mixed with water by spraying on various components of the structure. These types of coatings can resist fire and the effects of fire for 90 to 240 minutes, depending on the applied thickness.
As mentioned above, the density of these materials is very low compared to concrete and plaster, so they will have very little effect on the load imposed on the structure.
Materials with a dry mixing base are referred to as materials that are not initially mixed with water, but instead, the materials are transferred under low pressure air and then mixed with water that is sent separately into the nozzle at the exit of the nozzle. . More mixing indicates that the product has already been mixed with water on site and turned into a liquid solution, and then it is sprayed on the surface under pressure by means of special equipment.
These products are divided into three general categories:
7-1-1- Materials with low density
It is suitable for closed spaces, office buildings, commercial buildings, residential buildings, medical centers, etc. Among these materials, Cafco300 can be mentioned, which has a density of 310 kg/m3.
The Kafko 300 product can be sprayed or troweled, this product is produced in the factory as a pre-formulated mixture based on vermiculite and plaster for internal use. This material, having the lowest specific weight, is very suitable for use in the positive floors of buildings, as well as on structures and skeletons on which the application of weight is very important.
Kafko 300 product is a light coating that provides very effective fire resistance with minimum thickness on steel surfaces, steel decks and metal ducts. A structure protected with Kafko 300 can resist fire for more than 240 minutes.
Kafko 300, because it is made of gypsum-based compounds, can be used for dry places and areas, as well as areas where the possibility of physical damage is less.
7-1-2- Materials with medium density
It is suitable for spaces adjacent to air and humidity, office, commercial, residential buildings, medical centers and parking lots. Among these materials, Cafco 400 and Cafco CP2 can be mentioned, which have a density of 352 kg/m3 and 390 kg/m3, respectively.
Kafko 400 sprayable fire retardant is based on Portland cement. This wet mortar with medium density is designed to create resistance to protect the steel structure in commercial and high-rise structures.
Due to its strong surface, this product is suitable for use in areas where the percentage of damage is high.
It is very suitable for use in areas and places that have moisture and the possibility of physical damage, such as parking lots, negative floors of buildings and swimming pools, because cement is resistant to physical shocks and moisture, and this material is resistant to the growth of mold and algae in these areas. resists
Cafco MANDOLITE CP2
Cafco MANDOLITE CP2 fire retardant is based on Portland cement. This wet mortar with normal density is designed to provide resistance to protect the steel structure in commercial and high-rise structures. Due to its strong surface, this product is suitable for use in areas where the percentage of damage is high.
It is very suitable for use in areas and places that have moisture and the possibility of physical damage, such as parking lots, negative floors of buildings and swimming pools, because cement is resistant to physical shocks and moisture, and this material is also against the growth of mold and algae. It resists in these areas.
7-1-3- Materials with high density
It is suitable for spaces close to air and humidity, vibration, industrial units, oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Among these materials, Cafco Fendolite MII can be mentioned, which has a density of 775 kg/m3.
Cafco Fendolite MII
This product is produced in the factory as a pre-formulated mixture based on vermiculite and portland cement for internal use.
This coating is very suitable for use in areas and places where there is a possibility of hydrocarbon fires and explosions, such as tunnels, oil and gas and petrochemical industries, fuel sheds, etc.
This product can be used in a wide range of residential, educational, recreational centers and commercial projects.
7-2- Swelling coatings based on organic materials (Intumescent Paint)
These coatings are in the form of paint and are mainly based on water-based acrylic resin or epoxy resin and are applied on the structure by roller or airless spray with a thickness of 500-2500 microns. After exposure to flame, intumescent colors do not react until the temperature reaches 300 degrees Celsius.
With the gradual increase in temperature, the materials in these paints are activated and swollen, and with the increase in volume, they create a thick porous and ash-like layer up to 40 times the initial thickness of the paint, which prevents the heat from fire from reaching the structure. Due to the very high price, these types of colors are mostly used in cases where it is not possible to implement mineral coatings, such as ease of implementation or architectural considerations, etc.
The effective thickness of these coatings is similar to mineral coatings, taking into account the shape factor of the structure and based on the tables
It does not have ANSI/UL 263 design. Among these materials, Cafco SprayFilm WB3 can be mentioned.
Cafco SprayFilm WB3
SprayFilm WB3 expandable paint is based on water and vinyl polyester resin and is used to protect the steel structure against fire, which can be covered with a decorative paint as a top coat.
SprayFilm WB3 paint is applied directly on I and H-shaped beams and columns and hollow metal columns and has the ability to protect the steel structure for up to 120 minutes. When there is a fire, a chemical reaction occurs and SprayFilm WB3 paint expands and becomes an insulating layer that prevents the temperature of the metal from reaching a critical temperature.
7-3- Fire protection boards and panels (Fire Protection Board)
These products are usually manufactured as reinforced mineral materials for fire resistance, the desired insulation is achieved if the boards are properly implemented. Compared to other fireproof products, these products occupy the most space and have operational limitations, therefore, in cases where there is a need to maintain the appearance or there is a limitation in space, it is an inappropriate choice. Among the advantages of these products, we can mention quick and easy cutting and installation, easy and cheap transportation.
According to the rules and instructions of the fire department as well as other internal standards such as:
Topic 3 National Building Regulations
Publication 444 of Housing Research Center
Publication 445 of Housing Research Center
Publication 112 of the Vice President’s Planning and Strategic Supervision
All load-bearing components of the structure in high-rise buildings should be secured against fire.
Among the applications of these coatings, the following can be mentioned:
Commercial and administrative centers
Multi-storey parking lots
Hostels and boarding houses
Care centers for children, the elderly and the disabled
Oil and gas refineries
9- Calculation of thickness
According to topic 3 of the National Building Regulations, the level of resistance of structures by the relevant authorities who are in charge of fire resistance of buildings (fire fighting organization and municipal safety services) depending on the height, type of use, size of the structure and type of occupation, from 60 to 240 minutes is determined.
After determining the required strength of the structure, the technical-engineering team of this company carefully examined each and every element of the structure and executive plans, and according to the designs defined in the ANSI/UL 263 standard, determined the thickness of the required coating. do
The coating thickness is calculated based on the shape factors of the structural element such as HP/A and W/D.
In fact, the above factors indicate the level of heat receiver against the volume of heat transfer, which means that the larger the level of heat absorber (Hp) compared to the volume of heat transfer (A), the greater the ability to store thermal energy. is higher and as a result the structure is more prone to heating and softening as a result.
As a result, the higher the Hp/A factor, the more the structure should be fire resistant, so the thickness of the coating should be applied on the structure.
9-1- Implementation of coverage
9-1-1- Type of material
The following materials are recommended for strengthening the structural components:
Cafco 300 type fireproof materials based on gypsum and vermiculite for ground and positive floors
Fireproof materials based on cement and vermiculite of Cafco Cp2 type for negative floors
9-1-2- Implementation method
The brief description of how to implement the aforementioned covers is as follows:
First, all surfaces must be completely cleaned so that they are free of dust and grease.
Washing it with water or waterjet is enough and thinner is used only in cases where we are faced with a greasy surface, otherwise the use of thinner is not allowed.
In cases where the metal surface has no color, if there is corrosion and rough rust, the surface should be completely sand blasted (up to SA 2 1/2 grade).
After sandblasting, the metal surface should be painted with a suitable color.
Suitable colors for use on the surface of the structure as a fireproof coating are:
Zinc Free Epoxy
Zinc Phosphate Epoxy
Polyamide Epoxy Cured Intermediate
Coal Tar Epoxy*
* If the color of the work surface has a high gloss, it is necessary to remove the gloss of the surface with mechanical tools (Power Tools) in order to create adhesion with the fireproof coating on the entire surface of the structure.
– Applying primer (Key Coat)
The ingredients of Key Coat are:
Latex SBR glue
The prepared mixture should be applied on the surface in a layer with a thickness of about 100 microns.
The drying time of this layer is 3-5 hours.
A roller or brush should be used to apply this layer.
A mixture of SBR glue and fire retardant materials
Method of application
Cafco 300 or Cafco CP2 is mixed with SBR glue, fire retardant materials and water in the following proportions and is applied on the surface by a spray device with a thickness of about 1 mm:
Fireproof materials 20 kg
Water 5.8 liters
SBR glue 5.8 liters
Implementation of the final layer
The ingredients of this layer are:
Fire retardant Cafco 300 20 kg
Water 31-40 liters
Fire retardant Cafco CP2 12.5 kg
Water 10-14 liters
The duration of mixing the ingredients together is 3-5 minutes.
Materials should be applied on the surface by a Rotor-Stator type mortar sprayer. The thickness of the applied materials after drying should be based on the thickness calculation tables. The diameter of the sprinkler hose should be 1-1.4-2 inches and its length should be 60 meters maximum.
The spray gun should be perpendicular to the desired surface when spraying.
The distance of the tip of the gun from the surface should be at most 40 cm.
After applying the material, if needed, the applied surface is leveled briefly using construction tools before the material dries.
10- All provinces of the country where the implementation of fire protection is mandatory.